MACAM DAN JENIS KAPAL KAPAL SERTA FUNGSI YG ADA DI DUNIA PELAYARAN
1. tanker, is a ship designed to transport liquids in bulk. Major types of tankship include the oil tanker, the chemical tanker, and the liquefied natural gas carrier.
kapal tannker ini pun dalam pengangkutan di bagi bagi lagi dari jenis atau typenya . juga akan berbeza beza. makin berbahaya muatan yg di bawah maka system design kapal itu pun akan makin canggih. demi keselamatan si awak kapal tsb.
2. car carrier shi/ Roll-on/roll-off (RORO or ro-ro) ships are vessels designed to carry wheeled cargo such as automobiles, trucks, semi-trailer trucks, trailers or railroad cars that are driven on and off the ship on their own wheels. This is in contrast to lo-lo (lift on-lift off) vessels which use a crane to load and unload cargo.
RORO vessels have built-in ramps which allow the cargo to be efficiently "rolled on" and "rolled off" the vessel when in port. While smaller ferries that operate across rivers and other short distances still often have built-in ramps, the term RORO is generally reserved for larger ocean-going vessels. The ramps and doors may be stern-only, or bow and stern for quick loading.
3. A ferry (or ferryboat) is a form of transport, usually a boat or ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers and their vehicles across a body of water. Ferries are also used to transport freight (in lorries and sometimes unpowered freight containers) and even railroad cars. Most ferries operate on regular, frequent, return services. A foot-passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi.
3. A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship's amenities are part of the experience. Cruising has become a major part of the tourism industry, with millions of passengers each year. . Cruise ships operate mostly on routes that return passengers to their originating port. In contrast, dedicated transport oriented ocean liners do "line voyages" and typically transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. Some cruise ships also engage in longer trips which may not lead back to the same port for many months (longer round trips
4. Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. They form a common means of commercial intermodal freight transport.dgn system containerization maka pemuatan dan pembongkaran akan menjadi cepat. biasanya 4 s/d 6 jam kapal sudah siap untuk berlayar kembali.
5. A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship specially designed to transport unpackaged bulk cargo, such as grains, coal, ore, and cement in its cargo holds. kelebihan dari kapal ini adalah daya angkut yg besar karena broken stowagenya pun kecil.
6. A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. Some barges are not self-propelled and need to be towed by tugboats or pushed by towboats.
7. Hopper barge is a kind of non-mechanical ship or vessel that cannot move around by itself, unlike some other types of barges. Designed to carry materials, like rocks, sand, soil and rubbish, for dumping into the ocean, a river or lake for land reclamation.
8. A heavy lift ship is a vessel designed to move loads that cannot be handled by normally equipped ships. They are of two types: semi-submersibles capable of lifting another ship out of the water and transporting it; and vessels that augment unloading facilities at inadequately equipped ports.
9. A Floating Production, Storage and Offloading vessel (FPSO; also called a "unit" and a "system") is a type of floating tank system used by the offshore oil and gas industry and designed to take all of the oil or gas produced from nearby platforms or templates, process it, and store it until the oil or gas can be offloaded onto a tanker or transported through a pipeline.
10. A diving support vessel is a ship that is used as a floating base for professional diving projects
11. A fireboat is a specialized watercraft, often resembling a tugboat, with pumps and nozzles designed for fighting shoreline and shipboard fires.
12. A Platform supply vessel (often abbreviated as PSV) is a ship specially designed to supply offshore oil platforms. These ships range from 65 to 350 feet in length and accomplish a variety of tasks. The primary function for most of these vessels is transportation of goods and personnel to and from offshore oil platforms and other offshore structures
13. A tugboat (tug) is a boat that maneuvers vessels by pushing or towing them. Tugs move vessels that should not move themselves alone, such as ships in a crowded harbor or a narrow canal, or those that cannot move themselves, such as barges, disabled ships, or oil platforms. Tugboats are powerful for their size and strongly built, some are ocean-going. Some tugboats serve as icebreakers or salvage boats. Early tugboats had steam engines; today diesel engines are used.
14. A cable layer or cable ship is a deep-sea vessel designed and used to lay underwater cables for telecommunications, electricity, and such. A large superstructure, and one or more spools that feed off the transom, distinguish it from other types of ship.
15. A crane vessel, crane ship or floating crane is a ship that is specialized in lifting heavy loads. The largest crane vessels are often used for offshore construction. The larger vessels are often semi-submersibles, but also conventional monohulls are used. One of the differences with a sheerleg is that the cranes can rotate.
16. A drillship is a maritime vessel that has been fitted with drilling apparatus. It is most often used for exploratory drilling of new oil or gas wells in deep water or for scientific drilling. The drillship can also be used as a platform to carry out well maintenance or completion work such as casing and tubing installation or subsea tree installations. It is often built to the design specification of the oil production company and/or investors, but can also be a modified tanker hull outfitted with a dynamic positioning system to maintain its position over the well.Drillships are just one way to perform exploratory drilling. This function can also be performed by Semi-submersibles, jackup barges, barges, or platform rigs.
17. Dredging is an excavation activity or operation usually carried out at least partly underwater, in shallow seas or fresh water areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments and disposing of them at a different location.A dredge is a device for scraping or sucking the seabed, Dredging can produce materials for land reclamation or other purposes (usually construction-related),
18. A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in commercial, artisanal and recreational fishing.
21. A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year; they handle the bulk of international trade. Cargo ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes
22. A warship is a ship that is built and primarily intended for combat. Warships are usually built in a completely different way than merchant ships. As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faster and more maneuverable than merchant ships. Unlike a merchant ship, a warship typically only carries weapons, ammunition and supplies for its own crew (rather than merchant cargo). Warships usually belong to a navy
23. Sailing ship is now used to refer to any large wind-powered vessel. In technical terms, a ship was a sailing vessel with a specific rig of at least three masts, square rigged on all of them, making the sailing adjective redundant. In popular usage "ship" became associated with all large sailing vessels and when steam power came along the adjective became necessary. Large sailing vessels which are not ship rigged may be more appropriately called boats.
24. A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has only limited underwater capability. The term submarine most commonly refers to large crewed autonomous vessels; however, historically or more casually, submarine can also refer to medium sized or smaller vessels (midget submarines, wet subs), Remotely Operated Vehicles or robots. The word submarine was originally an adjective meaning "under the sea", and so consequently other uses such as "submarine engineering" or "submarine cable" may not actually refer to submarines at all. Submarine was shortened from the term "submarine boat".
25. The Landing Craft, Tank (Landing Craft Tank) was an amphibious assault ship for landing tanks on beachheads. The first examples appeared during the Second World War. They were used by the Royal Navy and U.S. Navy in World War II. The latter used them afterwards under different designations in the Korean War and the Vietnam War. During WWII, they were commonly called by their abbreviation, LCT.